Skip to Content

Create a Sample Application on Cloud Foundry Using SAP Cloud SDK

Create the very first Hello World example on Cloud Foundry using the SAP Cloud SDK.
You will learn

This tutorial will cover your first steps when developing applications for SAP Business Technology Platform (BTP) Cloud Foundry using SAP Cloud SDK. You will create an account for SAP BTP Cloud Foundry and setup the Cloud Foundry command line interface for deploying and managing Cloud Foundry applications. Then you will generate your first project using the SAP Cloud SDK Maven archetype and deploy your first application to SAP BTP Cloud Foundry.

019a019aFebruary 7, 2022
Created by
October 4, 2017
  • Step 1

    In order to deploy applications to SAP Business Technology Platform Cloud Foundry, you need to create a free trial account.
    You can create your account by following this tutorial.

    After creating your account and activating it via email, you can log in to your personal Cloud Cockpit. For your first visit, it should look like this:

    SAP BTP Cockpit first view

    After selecting your region, your account will be automatically set up for development with Cloud Foundry.

    Clicking on “Enter Your Trial Account” will lead you to your account overview:

    SAP BTP account overview

    Now that your account is activated and configured, you will need the Cloud Foundry command line interface (CF CLI) to deploy and manage your Cloud Foundry applications.

    To install the CLI, you can either grab the latest release on the official release page or use your favorite package manager.

    In order to deploy applications on SAP Cloud Foundry you need to provide the CF CLI with an API endpoint. The API endpoint depends on the region you chose for your account:

    • for EU:
    • for US EAST:
    • for US CENTRAL:

    Now enter the following commands (in this case for the EU region):

    cf api
    cf login

    The CLI will ask you for your mail and your password. After entering these, you should be successfully logged in.

    Note: The CF CLI stores the information locally in a ~/.cf/config.json file. Further authentication relies on a JWT that expires after some time, so you don’t have to login every time you want to push your app to the cloud.

    Log in to complete tutorial
  • Step 2

    To generate your first project from the Maven archetype, run the following command:

    mvn archetype:generate "" "-DarchetypeArtifactId=scp-cf-tomee" "-DarchetypeVersion=RELEASE"

    During the generation process, Maven will require additional parameters to form your project:

    • groupId - An identifier representing your group, company or organization (e.g.
    • artifactId - An identifier for your application (e.g. firstapp)
    • version - The version of your application (e.g. 1.0-SNAPSHOT)
    • package - The name of the top-level package your source code will reside in (typically equal to your groupId, e.g. Please pay attention to package and directory names in any upcoming source code when using a different package name than suggested here.

    After providing these values, Maven will generate your project from the archetype.

    Maven generates project from archetype

    Note: Here you have created an application which is based on the TomEE runtime which is a Java EE 6 compliant open-source runtime that is available in the Cloud Foundry platform if your goal is to create a Java EE application. You may also initialize the project with Spring Boot. To adapt the archetype simply change the artifactId to scp-cf-spring. This tutorial series will be primarily based on the TomEE runtime. Nonetheless, the SAP Cloud SDK is compatible with these popular runtimes too.

    Log in to complete tutorial
  • Step 3

    Now you can open your favorite IDE and import the project as Maven Project. After importing the project into your IDE, the project structure should look like this:

     /-- .pipeline
     |    |-- config.yml
     +-- application [firstapp-application]
     +-- cx-server
     +-- integration-tests [firstapp-integration-tests]
     |-- Jenkinsfile
     |-- manifest.yml
     |-- pom.xml

    The first thing you will notice is the different directories:

    • .pipeline
    • application [firstapp-application]
    • cx-server
    • integration-tests [firstapp-integration-tests]

    There are two Maven sub-modules application [firstapp-application] and integration-tests [firstapp-integration-tests], which serve different aspects of your code application, test and deployment environment. The following separation of modules makes it possible to run dedicated unit tests and sensitive integration tests without deploying the application.
    Additionally, there are utility scripts within the cx-server directory that can be used for local deployment and testing as well as a configuration file for your Jenkins build pipeline in .pipeline.

    Multiple modules project

    The advantage of operating a multiple modules project for your application becomes apparent as soon as the software complexity rises. Then it gets convenient to dedicate code distribution and responsibility to developers for either application or test environment. In terms of reliability and continuance, you will see that front-end testing and test automation are as important as classic back-end testing of your project. These fields of expertise require different programming paradigms, as well as different kinds of development life cycles. To ensure the overall software stability and reliability, a multiple modules setup is the best practice solution.
    To get you started, lets take a look into the conventional application project, as well as the classic unit tests. Then the integration tests follow, used for code tests with external servers and resources. Once software testing is covered, this tutorial briefly introduces the Cx server for continuous integration and delivery.

    application contains the source code, unit tests, and configuration of your actual web application.

    application [firstapp-application]
     /-- src
     |    /-- main
     |    |    /-- java
     |    |    |    /--
     |    |    |         |--
     |    |    /-- resources
     |    |    |    |--
     |    |    /-- webapp
     |    |         /-- WEB-INF
     |    |              |-- beans.xml
     |    |              |-- web.xml
     |    /-- test
     |         /-- java
     |              /--
     |                   |--
     |-- pom.xml
    • src/main/java - Here goes your production code, nothing else. As you can see, there’s already the HelloWorldServlet, which will be look at in more detail soon.
    • src/main/resources - Anything that you require in your production code but is not compilable code goes here (typically things like API definition files for RAML or OpenAPI, Database Migration Files for Flyway or Liquibase).
    • src/main/webapp - Contains the deployment descriptor for your web application web.xml.
    • src/test/java - Contains the unit tests for your application. The purpose of classes in here is to test and validate single aspects of data flow and computational operations of your application project.
    • pom.xml - This is your project management file for Maven where you can maintain other open source dependencies or use plugins that simplify your build environment.

    integration-tests contains the integration tests for your application. Its structure is similar to application.

    integration-tests [firstapp-integration-tests]
     /-- src
     |    /-- test
     |         /-- java
     |         |    /--
     |         |         |--
     |         |         |--
     |         /-- resources
     |              |-- arquillian.xml
     |-- pom.xml    
    • src/test/java - Here you can put all your integration tests. As you can see, it already contains HelloWorldServletTest corresponding to the HelloWorldServlet.
    • src/test/resources - Here are all the resources needed for the integration tests to run or validate.

    cx-server contains the script and configuration file to manage your best practice continuous integration and delivery software environment (Cx). The included files allow users to simply create your very own Cx server as part of a Docker deployment. Jenkins is the server which will be run. This automation server helps to manage all technical steps of a software development process.

     |-- cx-server
     |-- cx-server.bat
     |-- server.cfg
    • cx-server - This Unix bash script allows you to start and stop the Jenkins server on your local machine as part of a Docker container.
    • cx-server.bat - This batch script is the counter part to the cx-server script for Windows users.
    • server.cfg - This is the configuration file for the server parameters.

    Once a Jenkins server is configured for your personal needs, the files in the project root directory become useful:

    • Jenkinsfile - This text file contains the definition of a Jenkins Pipeline and stays part of your project source code. It defines what steps are run specifically for your application.
    • .pipeline/config.yml - This is the configuration file for your specific application.
    • manifest.yml is the deployment descriptor for Cloud Foundry. This file will be covered in more detail later in this tutorial.

    Unit tests and integration tests

    This separation of test modules makes it possible to just run unit tests and integrations test without deploying, as well as deploying the application without running time consuming tests. Unit tests can either be kept publicly inside the application module application/src/test, or in a separate unit-tests module that is not part of the archetype. For that topic you can also refer to the articles and educational videos by Martin Fowler. His post about Unit Tests is a good starting point.

    During development it becomes important to test the code newly implemented to external services, i.e. logic running in a distributed environment. This is where the integration tests are an important tool to ensure correctness and stability over the whole internal and external deployment. Since the integration tests may contain confidential information, like business logic and test access tokens, it can be helpful to maintain their operation inside a dedicated Maven sub-module. That way the runnable application itself can be later shipped without tests and their dependency.

    Log in to complete tutorial
  • Step 4

    Now that you understand the structure of the project, let’s take a closer look at the HelloWorldServlet.

    public class HelloWorldServlet extends HttpServlet
        private static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
        private static final Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(HelloWorldServlet.class);
        protected void doGet( final HttpServletRequest request, final HttpServletResponse response )
            throws ServletException, IOException
  "I am running!");
            response.getWriter().write("Hello World!");

    The HelloWorldServlet extends HttpServlet, so this will be a HTTP endpoint that customers can visit. It is mapped to the /hello route using @WebServlet("/hello"). By overriding the function doGet, you define what happens when a client performs an HTTP GET request on the /hello route. In this case the endpoint simply writes a response containing Hello World!

    The application code runs seamlessly in SAP Business Technology Platform Neo as well as SAP Business Technology Platform Cloud Foundry. The SAP Cloud SDK is compatible with both versions and provides mechanisms to seamlessly transfer code between both environments.

    Log in to complete tutorial
  • Step 5

    In order to deploy the application, you first need to assemble your project into a deployable artifact – a .war file. Open your command line and change into the firstapp directory, the root directory of your project and run the following command:

    cd /path/to/firstapp
    mvn clean package

    This tells Maven to remove any files from previous assemblies (clean) and to assemble your project (package). The project is set up so that Maven automatically runs your unit and integration tests for you. After running the command, there should be a directory target inside of the application directory, containing a file called firstapp-application.war. This is the file that you will deploy to Cloud Foundry (or locally).

    Deploy to Cloud Foundry

    Now the previously mentioned manifest.yml comes into play – it’s the deployment descriptor used by Cloud Foundry.


    --- applications: - name: firstapp memory: 1024M timeout: 300 random-route: true path: application/target/firstapp-application.war buildpacks: - sap_java_buildpack env: TARGET_RUNTIME: tomee7 SET_LOGGING_LEVEL: '{ROOT: INFO, INFO}' JBP_CONFIG_SAPJVM_MEMORY_SIZES: 'metaspace:128m..'

    The manifest contains a list of applications that will be deployed to Cloud Foundry. In this example, there is only one application, firstapp, with the following parameters:

    • name - This is the identifier of your application within your organization and your space in SAP Business Technology Platform Cloud Foundry.
    • memory - The amount of memory allocated for your application.
    • random-route - Determines the URLs of your application after deploying it, where it will be publicly reachable. Thus it needs to be unique across your Cloud Foundry region. For now, you can let the SAP BTP generate a random route for your application by leaving this option unchanged.
    • path - The relative path to the artifact to be deployed.
    • buildpack - A buildpack is what Cloud Foundry uses to build and deploy your application. Since this is a Java application, sap_java_buildpack is used.
    • env - Here you can provide additional application specific environment variables. By default, for example, your application is configured to use the TomeEE container as its target runtime.

    In case you want to deploy an application using Java 11, please add an additional line under env:

    JBP_CONFIG_COMPONENTS: "jres: ['']"

    Now you can deploy the application by entering the following command:

    cf push

    cf push is the command used to deploy applications. The -f flag provides the CLI with the deployment descriptor.

    Hint: If you omit the -f flag, the CLI will check whether there is a file named manifest.yml in the current directory. If so, it will use this file as deployment descriptor. Else, it will fail.

    After the deployment is finished, the output should look like this:

    cd push output

    Now you can visit the application under its corresponding URL. Take the value from the CLI’s urls: ... and append the hello path:

    deployed application look

    Hello World!

    That’s it.

    Run the Application on a Local Server

    Since version 1.1.1 of the SAP S/4HANA Cloud SDK, the generated projects can also be run locally out-of-the-box. To do so, first assemble the project using the mvn clean package command (see above).

    Then, run the following commands to start the local server:

    mvn tomee:run -pl application

    Visit http://localhost:8080/hello on your local machine to view the response of your application. You can stop the server by pressing Ctrl + C.

    Now you have a strong basis for developing your own cloud application for SAP Business Technology Platform Cloud Foundry using the SAP Cloud SDK. In the following tutorials you will learn about more advanced uses of the SAP Cloud SDK.

    Log in to complete tutorial
  • Step 6

    Which of the following answers is correct:

    Log in to complete tutorial
  • Step 7

    What are prerequisites for running the SAP Cloud SDK Cx Server?

    Log in to complete tutorial
Back to top