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Implement Logic for a Custom Business Object

Control your custom business object application with ABAP logic
You will learn

Prerequisites

  • Authorizations: Your user needs a business role with business catalog Extensibility (ID: SAP_CORE_BC_EXT) in your S/4HANA Cloud system
  • How to enable logic implementation for a custom business object
  • How to implement changing custom business object database
  • How to implement checking a custom business object before save
  • How to implement saving or reject saving of a custom business object
  • How to implement informing the end user about save
  • How to ease development and test already while doing it

At the end your application will set some data automatically and reject a save with an error message for the causing inconsistencies.

Our Example

A several tutorials spanning example will show extensibility along custom Bonus Management applications.

In the first parts a Manager wants to define business objects Bonus Plan for employees. A Bonus Plan is there to save employee specific rules for bonus entitlement.

Additional Information

  • SAP S/4HANA Cloud Release (tutorial’s last update): 1808
  • Step 1

    As there was no backend implementation to set the mandatory key field ID so far, we were forced to set it from the UI to be able to save instances. Now, as we will implement the logic to set the ID in backend and nowhere else, we will set that key field to Read-Only for the UI.

    1. Open the business object Bonus Plan in Custom Business Objects application

    2. Start Edit Mode by executing the Edit Draft action.

    3. Switch to Fields section.

    4. Check the Read-Only box for key field ID.

      Check Read-Only box
  • Step 2
    1. Switch to General Information section.

    2. Check the box for Determination and Validation

      Check Determination and Validation box
    3. Publish the business object.

    Now you are enabled to implement Determination logic which is called after each modification to a Bonus Plan instance from the UI, as well as Validation logic which is called before each save of an instance.
    Only in Determination logic you are able to change custom business object data.
    Validation logic is intended to check the business object, decide whether a save can be performed and provide the end user a message with helpful information like successful save or the reason for which a save had to be rejected.

  • Step 3

    For published Custom Business Objects without a Draft version you can implement logic.

    1. Switch to Logic section.
      Switch to Logic section
    2. Enter the After Modification Event Logic which is a Determination Logic.
      Enter After Modification logic
    3. In the logic view you initially see the not editable empty published version.
      Click the Create Draft action.
      Create Draft of logic implementation

    An editable copy of the published version appears left to it. With the Draft Version and Published Version actions you can decide what coding to see.

    View Draft and/or Published Version of logic
  • Step 4

    Implement After Modification event with following fix value functionality:

    • Set the key field ID if still initial.

      Hint: Changing Parameter bonusplan enables you to read current node data and change it.

      Hint: You can read existing Bonus Plan data via the CDS View that is named as the Business Object’s Identifier (here: YY1_BONUSPLAN).

      Hint: With the key combination CTRL + Space you can access the very helpful code completion.

      Code Completion



      ABAP
      Copy
      * set ID
      IF bonusplan-id IS INITIAL.
         SELECT MAX( id ) FROM yy1_bonusplan INTO @DATA(current_max_id).
         bonusplan-id = current_max_id + 1.
      ENDIF.
      
    • Set the Unit of Measure for the Bonus Percentages to P1 which is the code for % (percent)

      ABAP
      Copy
      * set percentage unit
      bonusplan-lowbonuspercentage_u = bonusplan-highbonuspercentage_u = 'P1'.
      
    • Determine and set the Employee Name from the Employee ID

      Hint: Extensibility offers Helper class CL_ABAP_CONTEXT_INFO with method GET_USER_FORMATTED_NAME that needs a user ID to return its formatted name

      ABAP
      Copy
      * set Employee Name
      IF bonusplan-employeeid IS NOT INITIAL.
         bonusplan-employeename = cl_abap_context_info=>get_user_formatted_name( bonusplan-employeeid ).
      ENDIF.
      
  • Step 5

    In dependence on following checks, set the isconsistent property.

    • Check that ValidityStartDate and ValidityEndDate are set and that ValidityStartDate is earlier in time than ValidityEndDate.
    • Check that Factors and Percentages are set correctly (all > 0, Percentages < 100, LowBonusAssignmentFactor < HighBonusAssignmentFactor)
    • Check that Employee ID is set
    ABAP
    Copy
    * consistency check START
    IF bonusplan-validitystartdate IS INITIAL
     OR bonusplan-validityenddate IS INITIAL
     OR bonusplan-validitystartdate GE bonusplan-validityenddate
     OR bonusplan-lowbonusassignmentfactor IS INITIAL
     OR bonusplan-highbonusassignmentfactor IS INITIAL
     OR bonusplan-lowbonuspercentage_v IS INITIAL
     OR bonusplan-highbonuspercentage_v IS INITIAL
     OR bonusplan-lowbonuspercentage_v GE 100
     OR bonusplan-highbonuspercentage_v GE 100
     OR bonusplan-lowbonusassignmentfactor GE bonusplan-highbonusassignmentfactor
     OR bonusplan-employeeid IS INITIAL.
        bonusplan-isconsistent = abap_false.
    ELSE.
        bonusplan-isconsistent = abap_true.
    ENDIF.
    * consistency check END
    
  • Step 6

    On top of the coding you can maintain runtime data for the current node structure which represents the data before running the test functionality. This data can also be saved as variant for later usages.

    1. Click the value help to add test data

      Add Test Data
    2. Enter following data

      Field Name Field Value
      validitystartdate 2017-01-01
      validityenddate 2017-12-31
      targetamount_v 1000
      targetamount_c EUR
      lowbonusassignmentfactor 1
      highbonusassignmentfactor 3
      lowbonuspercentage_v 10
      highbonuspercentage_v 20
      employeeid <any>

      employeeid <any> shall be the one of a sales person that created sales orders with a Net Amount of more than 3000.00 EUR in 2016 and that are completed.

      This will look as follows.

      Maintain Test Data
    3. Execute the Test action and you can see the node data after your logic was executed.

      Execute Test

      You can see that your logic works as id, *percentage_u fields and employename are filled and isconsistent is ‘X’.

    4. Publish the After Modification Logic.

  • Step 7
    1. Being in After Modification logic you can get to Before Save Logic this way:

      • Go Back in application
      • In Tab “Logic”, go to section “Determination and Validation”
    2. Implement Before Save event with following functionality

      • If the bonus plan is consistent, it can be continued to save, if not save shall be rejected. In case of save no further processing is needed and logic can be left.

        Hint: Exporting parameter valid must be set to true for save and to false for save rejection

        ABAP
        Copy
        * decide about save rejection
        IF bonusplan-isconsistent EQ abap_true.
            valid = abap_true.
            RETURN.
        ELSE.
            valid = abap_false.
        ENDIF.
        
      • If the bonus plan is not consistent, write the first found error into the message and end the logic processing.
        These are the possible errors in detail:

        • ValidityStartDate and ValidityEndDate must be set
        • ValidityStartDate must be earlier in time than ValidityEndDate
        • Factors and Percentages must be > 0
        • Percentages must be < 100
        • LowBonusAssignmentFactor must be < HighBonusAssignmentFactor
        • Employee ID must be set
        ABAP
        Copy
        * consistency error message START
        IF bonusplan-validitystartdate IS INITIAL OR bonusplan-validityenddate IS INITIAL.
            message = 'Validity Period must not be empty.'.
            RETURN.
        ELSEIF bonusplan-validitystartdate GE bonusplan-validityenddate.
            CONCATENATE 'Validity End Date' bonusplan-validityenddate 'must be later than Validity Start Date' bonusplan-validitystartdate '!' INTO message SEPARATED BY space.
            RETURN.
        ENDIF.
        
        IF bonusplan-targetamount_v IS INITIAL.
            message = 'Target Amount must be over 0!'.
            RETURN.
        ENDIF.
        
        IF bonusplan-targetamount_c IS INITIAL.
            message = 'Target Amount Currency must be set!'.
            RETURN.
        ENDIF.
        
        IF bonusplan-lowbonusassignmentfactor IS INITIAL
         OR bonusplan-highbonusassignmentfactor IS INITIAL.
            message = 'Assignment Factors must be over 0!'.
            RETURN.
        ENDIF.
        
        IF bonusplan-lowbonuspercentage_v IS INITIAL
         OR bonusplan-highbonuspercentage_v IS INITIAL.
            message = 'Percentages must be over 0!'.
            RETURN.
        ENDIF.
        
        IF bonusplan-lowbonuspercentage_v GE 100
         OR bonusplan-highbonuspercentage_v GE 100.
            message = 'Percentage must be below 100!'.
            RETURN.
        ENDIF.
        
        IF bonusplan-lowbonusassignmentfactor GE bonusplan-highbonusassignmentfactor.
            message = 'Low Bonus Factor must be smaller than High Bonus Factor!'.
            RETURN.
        ENDIF.
        
        IF bonusplan-employeeid IS INITIAL.
            message = 'Employee ID must be set!'.
            RETURN.
        ENDIF.
        * consistency error message  END
        
    3. Publish the Before Save Logic

  • Step 8

    Once ensured that both logic implementations were successfully published you can start testing the Application like an end user via the UI.

    1. Open the Bonus Plan application
    2. Open the Bonus Plan with ID 1
    3. Edit this Bonus Plan
    4. Enter value 10 into field Low Bonus Percentage
    5. Save the Bonus plan. You can see that your business logic works as the Percentage Units and the Employee Name get filled, but save fails due to the validation error messages for missing percentages.
    6. Enter value 20 into field High Bonus Percentage
    7. Save the Bonus Plan. Now it will not be rejected.
  • Step 9

    In which type of custom business object logic are you able to change instance data?

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