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End-to-End Tests for SAP Cloud SDK Projects

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End-to-End Tests for SAP Cloud SDK Projects

End-to-End Tests for SAP Cloud SDK Projects

September 30, 2021
Created by
June 4, 2020
10 min.
Implement end-to-end tests, the highest level of automated tests, and run them in a pipeline.


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This tutorial assumes you are already familiar with the basics of the SAP Cloud SDK and project “Piper”, e.g. because you already completed the mission Create a Cloud Foundry App Using SAP Cloud SDK and the tutorial Set Up Continuous Integration and Delivery for SAP Cloud SDK.
To follow this tutorial please download and extract an example project based on the SAP Cloud SDK archetype.

Step 1: End-to-end tests

For the end-to-end tests we use Cucumber and Nightwatch-api. It runs your tests using the chrome driver in the browser against a running version of your application. The version can run locally or on SAP Cloud Platform.

The example application you downloaded as prerequisite contains a frontend application which can list and create business partners. You can find it in application/src/main/webapp/address-manager.

Our first test is to load the page and check that it was loaded successfully. Tests can be defined in the Cucumber format:

Feature: Address Manager App
Scenario: Address Manager App opens
	Given I open the Address Manager home page
	Then a list of business partners is shown
	And the business partner name John Doe exists

We place that file in e2e-tests/features/address-manager-app.feature.

Steps are placed into the folder e2e-tests/steps. They define what exactly happens in each line of the feature file. A step basically implements the single lines in the feature file above. The file e2e-tests/steps/steps.js looks like as follows:

const { client } = require("nightwatch-api");
const { Given, Then } = require("cucumber");

Given(/^I open the Address Manager home page$/, async () => {
  const businesspartner =;;
  await businesspartner.navigate().waitForElementVisible("@body");

Then(/^a list of business partners is shown$/, async () => {
  const businesspartner =;
  await businesspartner.waitForElementVisible("@businessPartnerList");
  await businesspartner.assert.visible("@businessPartnerList");

Then(/^the business partner name John Doe exists$/, async () => {
  const businesspartner =;
  await businesspartner.navigate().waitForElementVisible("@businessPartnerDoe");

If we check multiple times for the same element, we can use page objects to have the retrieving strategy for this element in a central place.

@businessPartnerList is defined in the page object e2e-tests/page_objects/businesspartner.js and should make navigation easier:

module.exports = {
  url: function () {
    return this.api.launchUrl;
  elements: {
    body: "body",
    businessPartnerDoe: {
        "//li[contains(@class, 'sapMObjLItem')]//*[contains(text(), 'John Doe')]",
      locateStrategy: "xpath",
    businessPartnerList: {
        "(//div[contains(@class, 'sapMList') and contains(@class, 'sapMListBGSolid')])",
      locateStrategy: "xpath",
Which tools are used to implement end-to-end tests?
Step 2: Configure Nightwatch

To configure Nightwatch we create the following file in e2e-tests/nightwatch.conf.js:

const chromedriver = require("chromedriver");
const geckodriver = require("geckodriver");
const argv = require("yargs").argv;

module.exports = {
  output_folder: "s4hana_pipeline/reports/e2e",
  page_objects_path: __dirname + "/page_objects",
  silent: !process.env.NIGHTWATCH_VERBOSE,
  test_settings: {
    default: {
      launch_url: argv.launchUrl,
      webdriver: {
        start_process: true,
        port: 4444,
      globals: {
        abortOnAssertionFailure: true,
        retryAssertionTimeout: 10000,
        waitForConditionTimeout: 10000,
        asyncHookTimeout: 10000,
      screenshots: {
        enabled: true,
        path: "s4hana_pipeline/reports/e2e/screenshots",
    chromeHeadless: {
      webdriver: {
        server_path: chromedriver.path,
        cli_args: ["--port=4444"],
      desiredCapabilities: {
        browserName: "chrome",
        javascriptEnabled: true,
        acceptSslCerts: true,
        chromeOptions: {
          args: [
    chrome: {
      webdriver: {
        server_path: chromedriver.path,
        cli_args: ["--port=4444"],
      desiredCapabilities: {
        browserName: "chrome",
        javascriptEnabled: true,
        acceptSslCerts: true,
        chromeOptions: {
          args: ["window-size=1280,900", "disable-gpu", "no-sandbox"],
    firefox: {
      webdriver: {
        server_path: geckodriver.path,
        cli_args: ["--port", "4444", "--log", "debug"],
      desiredCapabilities: {
        browserName: "firefox",
        javascriptEnabled: true,
        acceptSslCerts: true,
        marionette: true,

This configuration file defines some constants and places where the reports are located. Please note, that we use the folder s4hana_pipeline/reports to store all reports. This path is later required by our pipeline. In launch_url you can see that, the URL tested against and can be defined as command line argument.

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Step 3: Configure Cucumber

Furthermore, we also have to configure Cucumber to start and configure chromedriver as well as Nightwatch. Therefore, we create the file e2e-tests/cucumber.conf.js with the following content:

const fs = require("fs");
const path = require("path");
const { setDefaultTimeout, AfterAll, BeforeAll } = require("cucumber");
const {
} = require("nightwatch-api");
const reporter = require("cucumber-html-reporter");
const argv = require("yargs").argv;


const reportsDirectory = path.resolve(
if (!fs.existsSync(reportsDirectory)) {
  fs.mkdirSync(reportsDirectory, { recursive: true });

BeforeAll(async () => {
  const options = {
    configFile: __dirname + "/nightwatch.conf.js",
    env: argv.NIGHTWATCH_ENV || "firefox",
  await startWebDriver(options);
  await createSession(options);

AfterAll(async () => {
  await closeSession();
  await stopWebDriver();

  setTimeout(() => {
      theme: "bootstrap",
      jsonFile: reportsDirectory + "/cucumber_report.json",
      output: reportsDirectory + "/cucumber_report.html",
      reportSuiteAsScenarios: true,
      launchReport: false,
  }, 0);

We also have to update the package.json to add an additional start script and additional dependencies:

    "name": "businesspartner-manager-cf",
    "version": "1.0.0",
    "description": "Frontend Tests",
    "scripts": {
        "ci-e2e": "cucumber-js e2e-tests/features --require e2e-tests/cucumber.conf.js --require e2e-tests/steps --format json:s4hana_pipeline/reports/e2e/cucumber_report.json",
        "ci-frontend-unit-test": "karma start frontend-unit-tests/karma.conf.js --watch=false --single-run=true"
    "author": "SAP",
    "private": true,
    "devDependencies": {
        "chromedriver": "2.45.0",
        "cucumber": "6.0.5",
        "cucumber-html-reporter": "5.2.0",
        "cucumber-junit": "1.7.1",
        "geckodriver": "1.16.2",
        "https-proxy-agent": "2.1.1",
        "jasmine": "^2.99.0",
        "karma": "^3.1.4",
        "karma-chrome-launcher": "^2.1.1",
        "karma-coverage": "^1.1.1",
        "karma-jasmine": "^1.1.2",
        "karma-junit-reporter": "^1.2.0",
        "karma-openui5": "^0.2.3",
        "nightwatch": "1.3.1",
        "nightwatch-api": "s3.0.1",
        "yargs": "^13.2.1"

The final folder structure looks as follows:

E2ETest Folders
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Step 4: Execute test

Now you can run the following commands to execute your tests. Note that the launch URL must be unprotected as we have not yet implemented a login step. End-to-end tests against secured applications explains how you can also target apps that require authentication.

npm install
npm run ci-e2e -- --launchUrl=https://path/to/your/running/application

You should see the following result:

E2ETests Result
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Step 5: Run E2E tests in the pipeline
S4SDK Pipeline

Please setup a continuous delivery pipeline for this project as learned in Set Up Continuous Integration and Delivery for SAP Cloud SDK.

To run the end-to-end tests in the pipeline you have to adapt the .pipeline/config.yml. In Set up CI/CD you learned that this file configures the behavior of the pipeline.
The end-to-end tests are run as part of the Acceptance stage.

The final configuration is shown below.

#Stage Specific Configurations
      - url: ''
        credentialId: e2e-test-user-cf

      - space: 'MySpaceName'
        manifest: 'manifest-test.yml'
        org: 'MyOrg'
        appName: 'firstapp'
        credentialsId: 'deployment-cf'

The section Acceptance consists of two sections. Before you can run the end-to-end tests, you first have to deploy our application to the SAP Cloud Platform. As for the productive deployment, you define a section called cfTargets or neoTargets to configure the deployment. Afterwards in appUrls you define a list of URL and credential ids specifying the launch URL for the tests and the credentials used as username and password environment variables.

credentialId: e2e-test-user-cf only required if you have implemented End-to-End tests against secured

The tests are executed once per entry in the list. For each entry the URL is passed as launchUrl to the test. The credentialsId is used to read the corresponding credentials from the credentials store in Jenkins. Thus, you have to create these credentials, as explained in the tutorial Set Up Continuous Integration and Delivery for SAP Cloud SDK. The username and password is read from the credentials store and passed as environment variable to the test.

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Step 6: Troubleshoot and questions

Are you facing a development question? Then check out Stack Overflow for SAP Cloud SDK related questions. If you do not find an answer, feel free to post your question and make sure to attach the tag sap-cloud-sdk. Our team, as well as the whole Stack Overflow community, are at your service and will quickly react to your question.

For an overview of SAP Cloud SDK related questions, go to

You think that you found a bug in one of our Continuous Delivery artifacts? Feel free to open an issue in our GitHub repository on

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Next Steps

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