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Enhance CAP-Based Service to Refer to Remote Addresses

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Enhance CAP-Based Service to Refer to Remote Addresses
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Enhance CAP-Based Service to Refer to Remote Addresses

09/27/2019

Enhance the CAP-based service, extending it to be ready to consume business partner addresses from the mock S/4HANA service.

You will learn

  • What a Core Schema Notation (CSN) definition looks like
  • How to import a CSN file into a CAP project
  • How you can extend definitions using separate files
  • How to define consumption of a remote service
  • What constraints look like on a navigation property definition

It’s time to extend the basic CAP-based service you created in the previous tutorial in this mission. You will add to the Orders entity a couple more fields that will be used in a relationship constraint definition, and then extend the service as a whole to describe the consumption of business partner address data that will be provided by the remote mock S/4HANA service.


Step 1: Import business partner service definition

In order to consume a remote service, and refer to that service’s components within a CDS definition, the service definition must be known and in a format that can be used with CDS. In this step, you’ll import the Business Partner API service definition, which has already been translated from EDMX to CDS’s Core Schema Notation (CSN) for you.

All the edits you do in this tutorial will be to the consumer app you created in the previous tutorial in this mission.

You’ve already performed a similar step (importing a service definition file) in a previous tutorial in this mission - note that you are going to do it again here in this tutorial, this time in your consumer-app project, because this consuming app that you’re building needs it too. For a slightly different reason of course - the consuming app needs to know about what it’s consuming, and the mock service app needed to know what to mock.

First, create a new directory external/ within the srv/ directory of the consumer app project, and then within that new external directory create a further new directory csn/. The names are not fixed but are recommended as the convention for external service definition files in CSN.

Into this new srv/external/csn/ directory, import the API_BUSINESS_PARTNER.json file, ensuring that the JSON structure is preserved – when looking at the file, use the Raw link to download it, in a similar way to how you did it in the first tutorial in this mission. Again, if you copy/paste, make sure you only select the JSON and not anything else (such as comments) rendered by any Chrome extension that is being used to display the JSON in a more readable form.

If you open the file it in VS Code, you’ll see something similar to this (you may also wish to refer to the Explorer view on the left-hand side of the screenshot to check you got the directory hierarchy correct):

the CSN file

Have a brief browse through this file, which contains definitions of entities in canonical CSN format (represented in JSON here). Find and examine the definition of the API_BUSINESS_PARTNER.A_BusinessPartnerAddressType entity.

What properties are defined as key elements (fields) in the API_BUSINESS_PARTNER.A_BusinessPartnerAddressType structure?
×
Step 2: Extend the Orders entity

The mock SAP S/4HANA service for business partners that you’ll be extending this app to consume contains address information, which is identified with the combination of two fields: the ID of the business partner, and the ID of the address itself.

In this step, you will extend the existing Orders entity definition in your consumer-app project by adding these two fields. Instead of modifying the original file (db/data-model.cds), create a new file with just this extension in it. It’s a small but nevertheless worthwhile example of how you can manage and separate different contributions to the overall data model, service definition and annotation layers.

Create a new file extended.cds in the db/ directory. In this extension, add the following:

Here, as elsewhere, try to resist the temptation just to copy and paste this content. Instead, type it into the editor manually. That way you will get a feel for the power and utility that the CDS Language Support extension for VS Code offers. If you are typing it in manually, please pay attention to the casing of the property names.

using my.bookshop as my from './data-model';

extend my.Orders with {
  businessPartner : String(10);
  addressID       : String(10);
}

Notice that the definition of these two new properties (String(10)) are taken from the CSN definition of the API that you looked at earlier in this tutorial. Notice also how the Orders entity reference is resolved with the using statement at the start.

Now check how this extension affects the data model as a whole, and the Orders entity definition specifically. In the integrated terminal in VS Code, use the following command to generate SQL statements for the data model, and check to see what is generated for the Orders entity:

Ensure you’re in the root directory of the project (that is, consumer-app/) when you run these commands.

cds compile --to sql db

You should see these two new properties businessPartner and addressID defined.

What type are these two new properties defined as?
×
Step 3: Add data to the Orders CSV file

Now that you’ve added a couple of new properties to the Orders definition, it makes sense to add new data to the corresponding CSV file that is used to seed the table at the persistence layer when the definition is deployed.

Open up the my.bookshop-Orders.csv file that is in the db/csv/ directory, and add two new columns as shown, supplying business partner and address IDs for the two orders (don’t forget to add not only the column names but also the data in the two data rows):

ID,BOOK_ID,QUANTITY,BUSINESSPARTNER,ADDRESSID
7e2f2640-6866-4dcf-8f4d-3027aa831cad,421,15,1003764,28238
64e718c9-ff99-47f1-8ca3-950c850777d4,271,9,1003767,28247

The business partner and address IDs here are specific ones that will match data in the mock SAP S/4HANA service, so you need to make sure you specify the data correctly to have the data entities match up.

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Step 4: Deploy and restart the service

Now you should deploy and restart the service, in which the following should happen relating to the changes to the Orders entity:

  • The Orders entity will be redefined at the persistence layer with the two new properties.
  • The Orders data will be loaded from the CSV file, including the new data.

First, redeploy like so:

cds deploy

This should result in familiar output:

 > filling my.bookshop.Books from db/csv/my.bookshop-Books.csv
 > filling my.bookshop.Authors from db/csv/my.bookshop-Authors.csv
 > filling my.bookshop.Orders from db/csv/my.bookshop-Orders.csv
/> successfully deployed database to ./consumer-app.db

Now restart the service, like so:

cds run

Notice that neither the db/extended.cds file nor the srv/external/csn/API_BUSINESS_PARTNER.json file are included:

[cds] - connect to datasource - sqlite:consumer-app.db
[cds] - serving CatalogService at /catalog
[cds] - service definitions loaded from:

  srv/cat-service.cds
  db/data-model.cds
  node_modules/@sap/cds/common.cds

[cds] - server listens at http://localhost:4004 ... (terminate with ^C)
[cds] - launched in: 660.515ms

And even when you access the Orders entity set at http://localhost:4004/catalog/Orders, the new business partner and address properties are not returned:

no business partner and address properties

That’s because they haven’t been referenced yet at the service definition level. You will address that next.

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Step 5: Have the extended Order entity recognized in the service

The srv/cat-service.cds service definition file is still referencing the entities in the my.bookshop namespace from the db/data-model.cds file. Change this reference now to point to the db/extended.cds file, so that the first line in srv/cat-service.cds looks like this:

using my.bookshop as my from '../db/extended';

Now restart the service (re-invoke cds run in the integrated terminal). You should see that the db/extended.cds source file is now included in the artifacts that are loaded:

[cds] - connect to datasource - sqlite:consumer-app.db
[cds] - serving CatalogService at /catalog
[cds] - service definitions loaded from:

  srv/cat-service.cds
  db/extended.cds                  <------------
  db/data-model.cds
  node_modules/@sap/cds/common.cds

[cds] - server listens at http://localhost:4004 ... (terminate with ^C)
[cds] - launched in: 655.994ms

Look at the Orders data again via http://localhost:4004/catalog/Orders. Whereas prior to this modification, only the book ID and the quantity were returned, now the business partner and address IDs are returned too:

Orders entity set
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Step 6: Reference the Business Partner API in the service definition

Now it’s time to define the consumption of the remote mock SAP S/4HANA service, which you’ll do in the local srv/cat-service.cds service definition file.

First, remove the reference to the Orders entity (you’ll be adding it back in a different form later in this tutorial) by deleting this line from srv/cat-service.cds:

entity Orders as projection on my.Orders;

Next, introduce the Business Partner API by bringing in a reference to the CSN you imported earlier; do this by adding a second using statement (directly below the one referencing ../db/extended):

using API_BUSINESS_PARTNER as BUPA_API from './external/csn/API_BUSINESS_PARTNER';

Now use this reference to define a new Addresses entity in the srv/cat-service.cds file, within the service CatalogService { ... } definition (i.e. at the same level as the two existing entity declarations), exactly like this:

  @cds.persistence.skip
  entity Addresses as projection on BUPA_API.A_BusinessPartnerAddressType {
    key BusinessPartner as businessPartner,
    key AddressID as addressId,
    Country as country,
    CityName as cityName,
    StreetName as streetName
  }

Finally, add the Orders entity back in, but this time, instead of it being a simple and direct projection onto the Orders entity as defined at the data model layer (as it was before), use the mixin approach like this:

  entity Orders as select from my.Orders mixin {
    address: Association to Addresses
      on address.businessPartner = businessPartner
      and address.addressId = addressID;
  } into {
    *,
    address
  }

Spend a bit of time staring at that definition, which combines the local properties of the Orders entity with a managed to-one association to an entity in the remote service.

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Step 7: Examine the service metadata

Restart the service by re-invoking cds run in the integrated terminal, and then request the service metadata document at http://localhost:4004/catalog/$metadata.

Take a few moments to examine what that metadata now looks like:

  • The entity container has references to all four entities (Addresses, Authors, Books, Orders).
  • The Books and Authors entities are the same as they were before.
  • The Addresses entity, although we know it is remote, is presented as a consumable type here.

Perhaps most notably:

  • The Orders entity now has two navigation properties, one with specific referential constraints that you defined in the previous step (in the on ... and ... clause).
Orders entity type
Which is the navigation property that has the referential constraints?
×
Step 8: Try to access the address data

Presented with the service overview at http://localhost:4004, you will see something that looks like this:

service overview

If you try to access the Addresses entity set directly (http://localhost:4004/catalog/Addresses) or even make use of the address navigation property in the Orders entity set (http://localhost:4004/catalog/Orders?$expand=address) you will find that an error occurs. This is visible in the response …

<error xmlns="http://docs.oasis-open.org/odata/ns/metadata">
<code>500</code>
<message>Internal Server Error</message>
</error>

… and also in the console output of the service:

SQLITE_ERROR: no such table: CatalogService_Addresses

This is because while we’ve defined the relationship to the remote service, we haven’t provided any implementation that will consume that remote service to satisfy those OData query operations. You’ll address this in the next tutorial in this mission.

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Next Steps

Prerequisites

  • You should start off in the same place as you were at the end of the previous tutorial – in VS Code, with the project open and an integrated terminal ready with a command prompt for you to enter commands.
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